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Guideline For Authors

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Manuscripts submitted to Journal of Asian Vocational Education and Training (JAVET) must be original and must not have been previously published or be under concurrent consideration elsewhere. Manuscripts must be written in English. Please submit your manuscript online via the Journal website ( Authors whose manuscripts have been accepted for publication will be asked to send a copy of the final edited version of the manuscript via the Journal website.


It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that his or her submitted works do not infringe any existing copyright. Furthermore, the author indemnifies the editors and publisher against any breach of such a warranty. Authors should obtain letters of permission to reproduce or adapt copyrighted material and enclose copies of these letters with the final version of the accepted manuscript.


Manuscripts are subjected to a double-blind review process and are reviewed by at least two independent reviewers. Decisions regarding the publication of a manuscript are based on the recommendations of these reviewers. Reviewers evaluate manuscripts based on their appropriateness for the Journal, significance of contribution to the discipline, conceptual adequacy, technical adequacy, and clarity of presentation. Manuscripts of members of the editorial board are subjected to the same review procedures.


Authors should prepare their manuscripts according to the guidelines provided in this section. Manuscripts that are not prepared according to these guidelines may be asked for revision prior to any editorial consideration.

Font, Spacing and Length

Manuscripts should be typed doubled-spaced using 12-point Times New Roman font. Use wide margins of at least 1 inch (2.54 cm) at the top, bottom, right, and left of each page. The length of the manuscript should not be more than 8,000 words.

Title Page and Abstract

A manuscript must include a separate title page, which should be the first page of the manuscript. The title page should contain the title of the paper and the author’s name, affiliation, address, and e-mail address. Any author notes (e.g., acknowledgements, disclaimers, special agreements concerning authorship, special circumstances regarding the study) should be typed on the title page also. The title page will be removed before the manuscript is sent out for review. All manuscripts must include an abstract not exceeding 300 words. Type the abstract on a new page (i.e., the page after the title page). Also, type the title of the paper centered at the top of this abstract page. No author’s name should be typed on this page.


Main headings should be used to designate the major sections of a paper. Center the main headings and flush left the secondary headings using lowercase letters (except for the first letter of the initial word).

Illustrations and Tables

Illustrations and tables should supplement the text and not duplicate it and they should be used judiciously. All charts, graphs, drawings, and other illustrations should be referred to as figures. Figures should be numbered and titled similar to the format for tables. Authors should be prepared to supply final camera-ready prints for all figures at the time the manuscript is accepted for publication.

Number the tables consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Each table should have a title at the top of the table, that is preceded by the word Table and its number (use Arabic numerals). Example:

Table 1: Descriptive statistics and correlation matrix

Relevant notes to a table should be placed below the table. General notes that explain the table as a whole should be designated by the word Note followed by a colon. Specific notes that refer to a particular column, row, or individual entry are indicated by superscript lowercase letters. Probability notes indicate level of statistical significance and can be designated by asterisks and daggers (e.g., *p < .05, **p < .01, † p < .10). Begin each type of note (general note, specific note, and probability note, in that order) on a new line, flush left.

In the text, refer to every table and figure by their numbers (e.g., “see Table 1”) and discuss only their highlights. Never write “the table below” or “the figure on page 2” because the position and page number of tables and figures cannot be determined until the typesetter makes the pages.


Footnotes are not recommended. Endnotes should be used only if it is absolutely necessary and must be numbered consecutively throughout the manuscript with superscript Arabic numerals. On a separate page, type the text for endnotes in the order in which they are mentioned in the text.

Reference Citations

All entries in the reference list must be cited in text. Cite references in text using the author-date method [e.g., Burgess (1999)]. If a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the work is referred to in the text. If a work has three to five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the name of the first author followed by “et al.” and the year. For works with six or more authors, use only the name of the first author followed by “et al.” and the year whenever the work is cited (in the reference list, however, all names must be given). Page numbers should be provided when specific arguments or findings of authors are directly quoted.

Citations in text

Richards and Bindley (2001) argued that . . .
Azlina et al. (1995) found . . .

For citations of two or more works, use chronological ordering. Separate each cited work by semicolons. Example:

Several researchers such as Davenport and Singh (1996a, 1996b), Tilley (1998), and Shamsul and Azmi (2000) support this argument.

Reference List

An alphabetically-ordered reference list should be included at the end of the manuscript. All references cited in text must appear in the reference list. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of all information in a reference. Several references by the same author(s) should be ordered chronologically (earliest date first). Multiple references of works by an identical author(s) with the same publication date should be arranged alphabetically by the title that follows the date and differentiated by adding lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.) immediately after the year. For periodicals, include an issue number only if the pages of the periodical are not numbered consecutively throughout the volume (i.e., if each issue begins with page 1). Begin the reference list on a new page and type the word References centered at the top of the page. Type each entry using a hanging-indent format and follow the reference style of the examples below.

Books and book chapters

Hashim, R. (1996). Educational dualism in Malaysia: Implications for theory and practice. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Kamogawa, A. (2009). Career development of women in Malaysia. In R. Mustapha, N. Azman, & A.R. Ahmad (Eds), Education for diverse learners (pp. 204-215). Serdang, Malaysia: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.


Leighton, P. (2001, November). She says, He says. CLEO, pp. 72-73.

New Straits Times. (2009, November 5). Spreading the message on integrity, pp. 24-25.

Menon, N.M. (2009, November 5). Waterfall survivors clean up Kanching Park. New Straits Times, p. S2.

Ali, M., Mustapha, R., & Jelas, Z. (2006). An empirical study on teachers’ perceptions towards inclusive education in Malaysia. International Journal of Special Education, 21 (3), 36 – 44.

Proceedings, presented papers and dissertations

Rahmat, R.A., Jumari, K., Hassan, A. & Basri, H. (2002). Intelligent traffic control with image processing sensor. Proceedings of the 2nd World Engineering Congress, 25-27 August, Oslo, pp. 339 – 344.

Mang, C. K. (2008).   Issues and challenges of primary education in rural interior schools in Malaysia: A review of seven research studies. Paper presented at the International Conference of Indigenous Pedagogies in Diverse Cultural Contexts: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities, 10-12 November, Miri, Sarawak.

Mustapha, R. (1999). The role of vocational and technical education in the industrialization of Malaysia as perceived by educators and employers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Electronic Reference

Thammasitboon, K., Sukotjo, C., Howell, H. & Karimbux, N. (2007). Problem-based Learning at the Harvard School of Dental Medicine: Self-assessment of performance in postdoctoral training. [accessed 1 February 2009].